隨著“工業4.0”和“中國制造2025”的提出,智能制造的概念被日益熱炒,如果說互聯網改變了人們的消費模式,那么智能制造將徹底改變生產模式,重構整個價值鏈的實現方式。但是如何正確理解智能制造呢?本篇文章王博士從不同角度對智能制造進行闡述,讓大家對智能制造體系有個準確、全面的認知。

China is vigorously promoting the "made in China 2025" national strategy, and many enterprises have listed "intelligent manufacturing" as their strategic vision and goal. As is known to all, intelligent manufacturing is the future new manufacturing mode, as the change of market demand unceasingly rich connotation and denotation, is integrated with technology innovation, model innovation and organization innovation of the advanced manufacturing system, is also the integrated manufacturing, lean production and agile

當前我國正在大力推進“中國制造2025”國家戰略,很多企業將“智能制造”列為其戰略愿景和奮斗目標。眾所周知,智能制造是未來全新的制造模式,隨著市場需求的變化不斷豐富內涵與外延,是集成了技術創新、模式創新和組織方式創新的先進制造系統,同時也是集成制造、精益生產、敏捷制造、虛擬制造、網絡化制造等多種先進制造系統和模式的結合體。

At present, China is vigorously promoting the "made in China 2025" national strategy, and many enterprises have listed "intelligent manufacturing" as their strategic vision and goal. As is known to all, intelligent manufacturing is the future new manufacturing mode, as the change of market demand unceasingly rich connotation and denotation, is integrated with technology innovation, model innovation and organization innovation of the advanced manufacturing system, is also the integrated manufacturing, lean production and agile manufacturing, virtual manufacturing, network manufacturing, and other advanced manufacturing system and the combination mode.

在企業兩化融合咨詢服務過程中,客戶無一例外把最終的目標設定為實現智能制造,但不同的企業,其信息化發展水平不同,容易出現兩個極端的傾向:

organization innovation of the advanced manufacturing system, is also the integrated manufacturing, lean production and agile manufacturing, virtual manufacturing, network manufacturing, and other advanced manufacturing system and the combination mode.

1、認為智能制造無所不能,迫切希望引入一套全新的“智能制造”系統來解決自己面臨的所有問題;

2、認為當前智能制造的概念大于本質,說到底與當前的數字化企業差別不大,升級并用好當前的ERP、MES等軟件就實現了智能制造。

顯然,這兩種傾向的產生都是對智能制造體系的理解不全面、不準確導致的。智能制造是一種制造范式,有多個不同的維度,不同的維度會給出不同的理解。

organization innovation of the advanced manufacturing system, is also the integrated manufacturing, lean production and agile manufacturing, virtual manufacturing, network manufacturing, and other advanced manufacturing system and the combination mode.

工信部和國標委聯合在2015年12月30日發布《國家智能制造標準體系建設指南》,包含了我國的智能制造系統架構,從生命周期、系統層級和智能功能三個維度構建。由于是從專業技術角度來描述,廣大客戶并不能完全理解。因此,本文希望從不同角度來對智能制造進行簡單的闡述,希望能夠拋磚引玉。

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一、從生產資料加工的角度來理解
傳統的制造是對物質資料的處理與加工,將原材料轉化為產品。所有的傳統制造過程是在現實的“物理”環境中,融合人們的相關“經驗”進行生產,全部過程是看得見的。

智能制造需要在兩個空間中進行生產:一是基于模型與知識與虛擬過程的制造,包括仿真、模擬;二是現實世界的加工生產過程。在現實世界中,加工生產過程中融入在虛擬世界形成的“知識”。虛擬制造對現實制造進行不斷的干預、優化和控制。

As is known to all, intelligent manufacturing is the future new manufacturing mode, as the change of market demand unceasingly rich connotation and denotation, is integrated with technology innovation, model innovation and organization innovation of the advanced manufacturing system, is also the integrated manufacturing

二、從產品的生命周期來理解
傳統制造過程中,生產出產品后通過分銷渠道提供給客戶,并只承諾客戶提供有限時間的質量擔保(如售后服務的時間限制,而企業的真實想法也是盡可能少地給客戶提供售后服務,因為產品價值已定的情況下相關服務會擴大成本支出)。

As is known to all, intelligent manufacturing is the future new manufacturing mode, as the change of market demand unceasingly rich connotation and denotation, is integrated with technology innovation, model innovation and organization innovation of the advanced manufacturing system, is also the integrated manufacturing

反之,智能制造提供的產品+服務,通過不同的服務創新滿足客戶個性化的需求,強調的是客戶體驗。智能制造希望在產品全生命周期能夠與客戶建立粘性,不斷提供客戶與產品生命周期一致的創新服務。從產品一生來看,首次的產品價格可能占到收入的50%以下。

As is known to all, intelligent manufacturing is the future new manufacturing mode, as the change of market demand unceasingly rich connotation and denotation, is integrated with technology innovation, model innovation and organization innovation of the advanced manufacturing system, is also the integrated manufacturing

三、從管理重點的角度來理解
傳統大規模生產模式下,制造過程是成本中心,通過高效率和精細化的制造過程管理,其目的是滿足質量標準最低要求下的成本最低。在市場競爭中,產品價格(傳統制造中產品同質化非常嚴重)是最為重要的因素。

反之,智能制造環境下,制造環境是直接面向利潤和價值創造的。制造過程的設計中,客戶的深度參與、個性化定制、按訂單生產等模式,目的是不斷的新價值創造(在這個過程中,雖然產品有差異,但總體來說直接成本相差并不大,但產品價格的組成中,創新服務占比很大)。

 

 

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